- Sudden painless loss& vision
- History of transient visual loss
- Direct Pupilory reflex absent
- Peri Orbital eyelid edema
- Emboli from carotial artery
- Cholesterol emboli
- Calcium emboli
- Platelet fibril emboli
- Atherosclerosis related thrombosis at the level of lamina cribrosa
- Retinal arteritis with obliteration associated with giant cell arteritis) periarteritis associated with polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma.
- Raised intra ocular pressure
- Thrombophilic disorders
- Retinal migrane, sickling Haemoglobinopathia, hyper coagulation disorders.